“The most peaceful thing in the world is plowing a field. Chances are you’ll do your best thinking that way." — Harry Truman
A farmer once said to me that the closer you get to the land, the less money you make. So why in the world would a group of college graduates head into farming—where they will face back-breaking labor, intense isolation, hellacious weather, voracious pests and diseases that overnight can lay waste to months of effort that is rarely profitable, anyway?
Well, it turns out that there are young people who are searching for what many of their parents’ generation were also looking for at one stage or another: Something authentic, honest. An experience they can own and be fully responsible for. Will all these young farmers stay in farming? Like any small business venture, some will make a go of it and others will wash out, sometimes quite literally. But we need all the young farmers we can get.
Cause for Concern
With more than 300 million of us living in the United States right now, less than a third of one per cent claim farming as their principal occupation, or about 960,000 people. Some might take this as a sign of progress. Hey, outsource farming to China and Mexico. That’s fine, perhaps, when a barrel of oil is $105, but what happens when the price of oil starts climbing. That asparagus from Mexico that was so cheap before also doubles in price because of trucking costs.
But regardless of the price of oil, there are, of course, cultural benefits in passing on the hard-won experience of today’s farmers to the next generation. US Secretary of Agriculture Tim Vilsack has outlined the problem: “We need to be concerned about how many people are actually going to be able to farm, and how we replace those who are retiring and those who pass away,” he says. “The average age of the farmer in America today is 57. We had a thirty percent increase in the number of farmers over the age of 75, and a twenty percent decrease in the number of farmers under the age of 25.”
In fact “all over the world, farmers are getting older,” according to Peter Nixon, an Australian sheep and grain farmer and international chairman of the Nuffield Farming Scholars Program.
“I Got into Farming to Pay Off My Milk Bill”
Sean Stanton, who is 39, started farming 12 years ago when he had to work off a $150 milk bill he owed to Dominic Palumbo of Moon the Pond farm in Sheffield, Massachusetts. But after paying the bill, Stanton decided to start farming on a small scale with the 10 acres of land that his parents owned just north of Great Barrington. “I didn’t want to compete with Dominic’s operation, so I started with 25 chickens. Eight weeks later when we got to processing, I wasn’t so sure that I wanted to do that anymore. It’s only a few hours, but it’s pretty intense if you’ve haven’t ever killed animals for food.”
Despite his initial reservations, Stanton decided that the whole process of raising animals was something he couldn’t walk away from. At first, Stanton saw raising chickens as supplemental income while he was in college. But by the end of the summer he had raised more than 425 chickens. Then he bought some pigs and cows and farming became a full-time job.
With the price of farmland doubling over the last 10 years, finding affordable places for beginning farmers is a real challenge. Stanton has been effective at gaining access to land from neighbors who want to keep land in agriculture. The landowners get a tax break and agriculture vistas (and aromas). Stanton gets access to land for next to nothing.
These days Stanton even has a restaurant connection. He works in close partnership with renowned chef Dan Barber to raise crops and eggs for Blue Hill Farm in Great Barrington.
Oxen, Not Tractors
When I first met farmer Rick Ciotola, he was in Sheffield, Massachusetts training a team of oxen who were secured cheek by jowl with a thick wooden yoke. For a brief minute I felt like I had stepped back in time. Who trains oxen today? Turns out Ciotola had his reasons. Born in the Bronx, the 5-year-old Ciotola moved to New Jersey when he was thirteen. His father ran a machine shop that handed industrial repair and where Rick learned to become a good mechanic. Taking a degree in construction management at Roger Williams, Rick started looking for work that “provided something necessary to society like teachers and policeman, a civil service, rather than a job simply to make money.” While he was good at construction management, rising quickly through the ranks, Ciotola was uncomfortable with the amount of waste in construction, and how the old farms and fields were being turned into condos. After hiking the Appalachian Trail for seven months in 2005, Rich was looking for a place to live in the Berkshires that would meet his rustic sensibility. He found a room-for-work situation at — ironically — Dominic Palumbo’s Moon in the Pond Farm. It turn out that his experience organizing construction projects was put to good use organizing and managing tasks on the farm and working with the crew.
Some will make a go of it and others will wash out, sometimes quite literally
After three summers with Palumbo, Ciotola headed out on his own, inspired in part by a presentation showing how draft animals can be used in farming. Telling a local dairy farmer about his plans to buy a team of oxen, the farmer offered to let Ciotola train two bull calves (males have little value in a dairy operation.) Compared to oxen that produce and distribute waste that helps farmers, experiencing a “face full of diesel fuel in my face” running a tractor really turned Ciolota’s head. Oxen do a fabulous job pulling logs out for lumber with minimal impact and going places that tractors can’t go. In fact, much of the work on a small farm, according to Ciolota, can be done as quickly using oxen as tractors, and improves the soil health of the fields in the process. It’s not that Ciolota doesn’t use a tractor. He does have a small one but, with little faith in the fossil-fuel economy, owning oxen is a great way to hedge his bets.
Today Ciolota is almost completely self-sufficient and healthier than ever. In the summer he grows veggies on two acres for himself and to sell at a farmers market. The fall is a good time to hunt deer. In the winter he uses his oxen for logging.
For him, “there is nothing better than having a beautiful meal with friends at the end of the day with food I have grown.”
Life with Chubby Bunny
Dan Hayhurst and his wife Tracy have been running Chubby Bunny Farm a 52-acre parcel in Falls Village, Connecticut, since 2003. With a degree in Philosophy from Boston College, the 38-year-old Hayhurst worked on four farms in five years before leasing and eventually buying his own land in 2006. The time he spent as an apprentice and the care he takes today in his farming practices make his vegetables a thing of beauty. (I learned to really love green leafy vegetables thanks to Chubby Bunny.) But its damn hard work to get them that way. The first time I met Dan he was hand-weeding the organic carrots. That’s just the way he rolls.
Listening to Hayhurst talk about soil is a lesson in itself. By using cover crops, (plants that suppress weeds, build productive soil, and control pests and diseases), he adds key nutrients that make his vegetables not only tasty, but replenish the soil in the process. He believes it’s important to use products and practices that are compliant with organic standards and deliver “nutrient density in our crops.” That means “plenty of compost, avoiding herbicides and synthetic pesticides.” Sustainability for Hayhurst is not only about “choosing sustainable inputs; it is constantly striving for a better and healthier ’farm, which encompasses our employees, our neighbors, our customers, our family, our animals.”
What he has learned over time is that in addition to maintaining the land, Hayhurst has to take care of his crew by effectively motivating his team and managing their time. The crew includes Dan, four apprentices, full time from April though October, and in two hourly locals to “bang out weeds” at peak times. His wife Tracy, meanwhile manages the books, their website, and the CSA, which attracts 300 paying customers. Like any progressive management consultant, Hayhurst builds the effectiveness of his team through mutual respect and ongoing education.
Getting into Farming
Not everyone who gets into farming is necessarily young. There are career changers, urban escapees, and even retirees. It certainly helps to have some life experience running a business, not to mention a lot of energy and the sheer willingness to take on the challenges of a farm. But regardless of age, beginning farmers should start small. Rick Ciolota recommends working on a range of farms over a number of years to gain experience. Equally important: Keep your town job. The National Young Farmers’ Coalition found that 73 percent of young farmers must work away from the farm to make a living. Meanwhile, only 22 percent of beginning farmers turn a profit in their first year.
To me there is something so elemental, pure and powerful — honest is a word I’ve heard more than once — about working a farm that attracts young people to farming. For the health of our economy and our collective wellbeing, I hope that these young farmers stick with it.
FOR MORE Beginning Farmers Family Farm ManagementThe GreenhornsBlue Hill FarmChubby Bunny FarmMoon in the Pond Farm
Picking your own fruit and vegetables can be fun for the family, but better with some forethought
Apples and pumpkins are suddenly everywhere, luring families and friends to pick-your-own-farms across the country. While these places provide agrarian entertainment year round, Fall seems to brings out the most people and the most major league traffic jams, like the one I observed in East Hampton, New York just last weekend. With proper planning, you’ll be creating memories for years to come.Here’s how to get to the farm and back with the maximum fun-per-mile:
1. Call Ahead
That light shower in the city could have been a hailstorm knocking golf ball-sized holes in pumpkins. Strawberries and blueberries can get waterlogged after a hard rain. Best to wait a few days for the sugars to concentrate a bit. A call will help you compare prices and agricultural practices that may not be addressed on the farm’s website. For example, one place I know produces the most beautiful berries you’ve ever seen outside of a Driscoll box. But they’re hardly natural. Those berries get squeaky clean through a fungicide cocktail that you wouldn’t want on your breakfast cereal. Even though a pick-your-own-trip seems to be all about family fun, a few farms have age minimums for visitors (based perhaps on some toddler bush-crushing in the past).
2. Know What Things Cost
You’ll want an idea of what things should cost. Some farmers try to compete on price. Some may charge more than the supermarket because they are using organic or sustainable growing practices. That does not mean that the supermarket price is the real cost of bringing food to the table. Supermarkets may use something like pumpkins as a loss leader to bring in shoppers. That said, some farmers do price at levels that leave a bad taste in my mouth. If three local farms have pumpkins at 39 cents a pound and another at 69 cents a pound and there is no difference in growing methods, well. . . you know what to do.
3. Get There Early
If you want your pick of the produce, especially something like berries, it’s best to arrive at the farm early, when fruit is at its peak and crowds are thinnest.
4. Bring Your Own Containers
I looked over a raspberry bush with envy this fall as a woman filled her wide, shallow basket with berries. It was easy to carry and could be filled to the brim without crushing the fruit. I, of course, was clutching a cardboard pint box and trying not to spill it as I reached far into the bush. At least I had remembered to bring an insulated cooler with water bottles frozen solid, to protect the fruit from field to fridge. In fact some farmers may charge you for containers. That’s generally okay—but not if the container is a huge cardboard flat that you don’t have a prayer of filling late on a Sunday afternoon.
5. Pick Carefully and Tread Lightly
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Occasionally a farm visit can feel like spring break, with people running through the fields searching for the next great row or the biggest pumpkin. Plants are the farmer’s livelihood and don’t respond well to being trod on. Ask the farmer for advice on where to pick and what to look for—ensuring that your clan is picking mature fruit that doesn’t needs ripening time.
6. Real Food Looks Different
Tomatoes shipped 1,000 miles are picked dead green and then gassed with ethylene to ripen and redden for supermarket shoppers. Some California strawberries sent to New York are given a good dose of water before being picked, to plump them for the box. Real food grown using heirloom seeds and sustainable methods may not look exactly like what you are used to getting in the supermarket, but it will be far tastier when the time from farm to table is measured in hours instead of days. For those of you still vibrating from seeing Food Inc., ask the farmer about the growing methods employed. Is he or she using pesticides or fungicides? If so, how recently was a field sprayed? Even farmers that usually practice sustainable growing methods may apply products as a last resort to save their crop.
7. Look For Deals
Farms may offer discounts if you’re picking a bunch or take their pre-separated seconds. So, if you’re planning on making gallons of sauce for a block party, you might be able to save as much as 50 percent.
8. Dress for Success
When walking the fields, it’s best to wear a hat, sunscreen and clothes that permit you to bend easily and wash (yourself and your crop) without a whole lot of fuss. Good, strong shoes with tread help. For some reason, on one visit I was wearing a pair of bowling shoes when I hit the fields. They looked fabulous but were so slippery that I spent a good part of the time on my keister.
9. Different Strokes
Some farms really go all out with agri-tainment, such as petting zoos, corn mazes, hayrides or pumpkin catapults. Others are, well, farms. If you have young children on the trip, taking a break with a puppet show may be just what the doctor ordered. But if you have come to pick, you might want to find a farm that focuses more on food than fun. Some farmers can be grumpy, too. Their people skills, slim to begin with, are further challenged when carloads of people are tromping through their fields. I prefer to find a place where the farmer is proud of what he does, wants to tell you about it, and will happily show you around.
Buy Direct and Save (a Farm)
They say the closer to the land you work, the less money you make. A U-pick farm visit certainly brings you closer to the land and your food. Spend a few hot hours in the fields and you’ll have a greater appreciation for what farm workers do every day. The dollars you spend there do make a difference. Farmers who sell their produce through distributors receive perhaps 30 cents on the retail dollar. When you make a purchase at the farm, you know the farmer is keeping the majority of your payment. And with farmers often powering small communities, that’s good news for all of us. Get started here.
[caption id="attachment_2491" align="aligncenter" width="300" caption="Photo: Bob Krasner"][/caption]
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A Mother Jones analysis compared eggs from battery chickens to pastured chickens and found that pastured eggs were better for you:
One-third less cholesterol
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